'Feedback is a compelling influence on learner achievement. When teachers seek, or at least are open to what learners know, what they understand, where they make errors, when they have misconceptions, when they are not engaged- then teaching and learning can be synchronised and powerful. Feedback to teachers makes learning visible' Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning, Oxford, UK:Routledge, p173
Feedback is a key element of the incremental process of ongoing learning and assessment. Providing frequent and ongoing feedback is a significant means of improving achievement in learning. It involves the provision of information about aspects of understanding and performance and can be given by practitioners, peers, oneself and from learners to practitioners. Effective feedback assists the learner to reflect on their learning and their learning strategies so they can make adjustments to make better progress in their learning.
Reporting to parents and families commonly occurs at least twice per year in a formal written statement from the school. Involving parents and families in the learning process by providing them with more frequent feedback about their child's learning progress and strategies they may use to assist their child improve has been shown to be effective in improving student achievement.
Effective feedback is designed to determine a learner's level of understanding and skill development in order to plan the next steps towards achieving the learning intentions or goals.
model of an effective feedback process
Feedback provides the practitioner and learner with evidence about current knowledge and skill development. Understanding about the learner's progress and level of achievement enables the practitioner to make decisions about the next steps to plan in the learning program. It enables the learner to reflect on their learning strategies to confirm them or make changes to improve their learning.
Read more about
giving and receiving feedback.
There are six key characteristics of effective feedback that contribute to learners making solid progress in the learning.
Read more about the
key characteristics of effective feedback.
Effective feedback is understood by the recipient and motivates them to want to learn more effectively.
tips for giving effective feedback.
Much feedback is informal such as through questioning, discussion, observation. Many tools are available to assist practitioners to gather such evidence (eg traffic lights and which face tools). Sometime more permanent evidence of where a learner is at on the learning continuum is required in order to reflect on and demonstrate progress over time. Many tools are available to assist practitioners to collect such evidence.
Digital portfolios or ePortfolios are useful tools for enabling learners to maintain a permanent record of their learning journey and they provide practitioners with a readily accessible record of the learner’s self-assessments and reflections on their learning strategies.
Read more about digital portfolios.
Greenstein demonstrates how to provide specific and concise descriptive feedback on learner’s work.
Chappuis discusses the features of effective feedback with a focus on younger learners and offers succinct advice on how to put it into practice.
Dorothy Spiller discusses some of the issues involved in the implementation of the feedback process.
Hattie and Timperley summarise research on feedback and develop a model for effective feedback in the classroom. They discuss types of feedback, especially that which enables students to become more self-directed and internally motivated and what the evidence suggests about how best to implement feedback in the classroom.
In this article x explains how descriptive feedback improves student learning and she provides tips for providing better quality feedback to learners.